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We would like to invite you to our state of the art dental clinic where we offer a wide range of dental services. We pride ourselves in offering a high standard, pain-free and stress-free care. Whether you want a whiter, naturally beautiful smile, are in need of restorative dentistry or are seeking advanced preventive care, our doctors are committed to providing you an exceptional dental experience. Smile Makeovers, Invisalign Orthodontics (Invisible braces), Porcelain Veneers, ZOOM!®Teeth Whitening, and Dental Implants are just some of our services. You can also be safely relaxed with oral conscious sedation.
Please browse our services by clicking on the submenu to the right!
Cosmetic Dentistry

Cosmetic Dentistry isn't just about teeth; it's about people's life.  

Cosmetic dentistry involves dental procedures with the aim of improving the overall aesthetics of your smile. This is often referred to as a " smile makeover", "Hollywood smile" or "Wedding smile". A beautiful smile can have numerous effects on an individual’s self-confidence, self-esteem and personal relationships. The recent advances in Dentistry provided a lot of options of cosmetic procedures that can fit everybody

To create beautiful and natural looking teeth; it is a form of art that require the dentist to have talent and scientific knowledge and experience.

Cosmetic dentistry is the collective use of several dental procedures to ultimately provide the patient with an aesthetic smile. A skillful dentist make use of porcelain veneers, porcelain crowns and bridges, teeth whitening, composite bonding, teeth re-contouring, and esthetic gum surgery to achieve a natural, beautiful and a harmonious   smile that satisfies the patient.            








Thanks to advances in computer technology, we are  also able to show you an image of your new smile before you even begin the procedure.  Through digital imaging software we are  able to manipulate a digital photograph of your existing smile and show you your redesigned smile . This is an excellent way to share your excitement with your friends and family!

Over the course of many years and may post graduate studies, our dental team surely can deliver the smile any one dreams of and thanks to the advances in modern cosmetic dentistry, we are able to improve your teeth and smiles with quick, painless and surprisingly affordable treatments. Check our gallery to see the results for yourself.

Every smile is as unique as the person who wears it. We take great care in designing a smile that suite the individual patient. A series of careful facial measurements will help the doctors to create a smile that is in proportion to your bone, structure, age and gender.


Cosmetic dental treatments can:

·    Change the size, shape, and alignment of certain teeth.
·    Fill in unattractive spaces between teeth.
·    Improve or correct bites.
·    Lighten or brighten the color of teeth.
·    Repair decayed, broken, cracked, or chipped teeth.
·    Replace missing teeth.
·    Replace old, unattractive dental treatments.
·    Reduce the excessive Gum tissue
·    Create an esthetic harmony between teeth and soft tissue








Remmber, your smile speaks before you even say a word!
Porcelain Veneers

Porcelain Veneers

Porcelain veneers are thin sheets of ceramic that bond directly to the front surfaces of the teeth. They are an ideal choice for improving your smile and have become increasingly popular due to their simplicity and versatility. When bonded to the teeth, the ultra-thin porcelain veneers are virtually undetectable and highly resistant to coffee, tea or even cigarette stains. For strength and appearance, their resemblance to healthy white tooth enamel is unsurpassed by other restorative options. Veneers can completely reshape your teeth and smile.  They can often be alternatives to crowns and the ideal solution in treating many dental conditions.

Venners Could Help in:

  • Cosmetically, to create a uniform, white, beautiful smile and to correct imperfections

  • Severely discolored or stained teeth.

  • To shape a tooth that doesn’t fit with the rest of the teeth

  • To close gaps and spaces between teeth

Veneers are a simple way to have a “facing” put on their teeth while preserving most of the natural tooth structure of the teeth. The preparation for veneers is painless and requires minor shaving down of the front surfaces of the teeth. Veneers are made of compressed porcelain and are bonded to the face of teeth much like artificial nails are applied or contact lenses. Veneers are fabricated in a laboratory using the most state of the art techniques.

Veneers are a simple way to have a “facing” put on their teeth while preserving most of the natural tooth structure of the teeth. The preparation for veneers is painless and requires minor shaving down of the front surfaces of the teeth. Veneers are made of compressed porcelain and are bonded to the face of teeth much like artificial nails are applied or contact lenses. Veneers are fabricated in a laboratory using the most state of the art techniques.

In many cases, patients choose to have all six of their front teeth veneered to achieve a “Hollywood smile". By having veneers placed on all six of the front teeth, the lab can fabricate a natural smile line and avoid an unnatural look.

Every smile is as unique as the person who wears it. We take great care in designing a smile that suite the individual patient. A series of careful facial measurements will help the doctors to create a smile that is in proportion to your bone, structure, age and gender.

Thanks to advances in computer technology, we are also able to show you an image of your new smile before you even begin the procedure. Through digital imaging software we are able to manipulate a digital photograph of your existing smile and show you your redesigned smile. This is an excellent way to share your excitement with your friends and family!

We ensure to include our patients in the selection of their new look by providing with different choices regarding their smile via simulation of the final look through either computer aided simulation or fabrication of a trial set of composite veneers for the patient to try and doing the needed adjustments before ordering the porcelain veneers.






What is involved in preparing your teeth for veneers

Since they require approximately 0.5 mm of tooth reduction, porcelain veneers are not considered a reversible form of treatment.

Occasionally, the preparation of a porcelain laminate veneer does not necessitate the use of a local anesthetic. However, for those patients that are particularly sensitive or anxious, a local anesthetic is advisable.

The laboratory time required for the fabrication of a porcelain laminate veneer is approximately one week, although this may vary.

You can expect some sensitivity to hot and cold. This is normal and is due to the removal of a small portion of the tooth's enamel covering. This sensitivity should disappear a few days after the placement of the veneers.

The insertion or cementation of your laminate veneers can be accomplished once again with or without local anesthetic. This visit is usually longer in length. The laminates are placed with a light-sensitive resin hardened with the use of a white light, effectively bonding them to your teeth.

Once placed, your laminate veneers are very strong and will resist most of the forces placed upon them by a normal diet. Porcelain is a glass and like glass it is strong, but brittle. Therefore, you should avoid anything that will tend to stress the laminate veneer. Opening pistachio nuts with your teeth, chewing on bones or candy apples is probably not a good idea. As with most things, common sense should prevail.


Frequently asked questions about Veneers:

Q. How long does porcelain veneers last?

A. They can last from 7 to 20 years. While the veneer itself is inert and non-living, the tooth or teeth to which they are attached, and the surrounding gum tissues are living and may change. If a veneer comes off it can generally be rebonded. If it chips it can sometimes be rebonded or otherwise replaced.


Q. Do porcelain veneers stain withnormal things like tea, coffee and wine?

A. Porcelain veneers should never stain, however if your teeth have a propensity to stain you should try to avoid or minimize the behaviors that lead to staining, and look after them with normal hygiene and maintenance procedures.

Q. If I have my upper teeth treated with porcelain veneers will my lower teeth still be a different color, or more yellow?

A. This is certainly a factor that will be discussed during your evaluation and smile design so that everything matches and blends well. Most patients usually whiten the lower teeth with whitening (bleaching) procedures to ensure a good match.

Q. Can I brush and floss my teeth after veneers and do I still have to come for professional Hygiene appointments?

A. Brush and floss as you normally would to prevent dental problems. Porcelain veneers are one of the kindest restorations to gum tissues that we currently have in dentistry. Don't be afraid of damaging your laminates by either flossing or brushing. Any non-abrasive fluoride toothpaste is acceptable. A good home care regimen will insure the esthetic success of your laminate restorations for years to come.

Q. Will I have to avoid eating certain foods?

A. Once placed, your laminate veneers are very strong and will resist most of the forces placed upon them by a normal diet. Porcelain is a glass and like glass it is strong, but brittle. Therefore, you should avoid anything that will tend to stress the laminate veneer. Opening pistachio nuts with your teeth, chewing on bones or candy apples is probably not a good idea. As with most things, common sense should prevail.

Q. Can I have veneers if I am clench my teeth at night?

A. If you are known to be a bruxer or clencher, i.e. you have a habit of grinding your teeth, please let your dentist know. He or she will fabricate a protective “occlusal” or bite guard for you to wear to minimize the stresses placed upon your teeth while you sleep.

Click here for our Smile gallery for smiles that were improved by veneers.

Porcelain Restorations


Porcelain Crowns and Bridges

A crown (or cap) is a covering that encases the entire tooth surface restoring it to its original shape and size.  A crown protects and strengthens tooth structure that cannot be restored with fillings or other types of restorations.

Although there are several types of crowns, porcelain (tooth colored crown) are the most popular, because they resemble your natural teeth. And not all porcelain are created equally. We make sure to utilize recent advances in porcelain material allows us to use porcelain that provide excellent esthetic results while maintaining adequate strength such as the world renowned Ivocalr IPS emax, you can read about it on the following link.

What should you expect?

The tooth is prepared for the crown by removing a thin layer of teeth to make room for the crown. Then an impression is made from the tooth/teeth, which is send to a laboratory where they use highly standardized techniques to fabricate the crown.

Crowns are generally made with a metal substructure for strength with porcelain over coating for its cosmetics. All gold or all porcelain crowns are also available. During the time the crowns are made, the patient wears a temporary crown used to protect the teeth, which is generally very comfortable.

For patients who have missing teeth, Bridge may be a treatment of choice. A Bridge is a fixed restoration placed in placed of missing teeth, and is not removable. The technique used in making the Bridge is very similar to the one used for making a crown, with the exception that with a bridge the teeth in front and back of the missing tooth are prepared

Teeth Whitening
  • Teeth Whitening


    Teeth whitening (or bleaching) is a simple, non-invasive dental treatment used to change the color of natural tooth enamel and is an ideal way to enhance the beauty of your smile.

    Because having whiter teeth has now become the number one aesthetic concern of most patients, there are a number of ways to whiten teeth.  

    Some of Reasons for teeth stains and discolorations:

    1. Fluorosis (excessive fluoridation during tooth development).
    2. Normal wear of outer tooth layer.
    3. Stained teeth due to medications (tetracycline, etc.).
    4. Yellow, brown stained teeth due to certain foods and beverages

    Types of Tooth Whitening Offered at GDC:

    Home bleaching

    Home bleaching is the most popular and affordable way of bleaching your teeth. This type of tooth whitening usually requires two visits.  At the first appointment, impressions (molds) will be made of your teeth to fabricate custom, clear plastic, trays. At your second appointment, you will try on the trays for proper fit, and adjustments will be made if necessary.  The trays are worn with special whitening solution either twice a day for 30 minutes or overnight for a couple of weeks depending on the degree of staining and desired level of whitening. Here is a link to one of the home bleaching products dispensed at our office.

    ZOOM -In office bleaching (1 hour only):

    This method of bleaching is done at the dental office, and the procedure only takes one hour. Although this method is a bit more expensive than home bleaching, but it usually yields greater results in a considerably shorter amount of time.

    It involves placing a bleaching gel on your teeth, then a special light source is used to activate and accelerate the action of that bleaching gel to get the results faster that home bleaching kits.

    Zoom whitening is a worldwide chair side bleaching system that has proven to show impressive results. Here is a  link to the product for further information.



    Frequently asked question of teeth whitening

    Q:Is bleaching safe or does it damage the tooth?

    A:Nothing detrimental has been documented and microscopic research shows no changes to the tooth surface with use of 10% bleaching solution. Most research available was initially done with a 10% concentration. There is no literature that we have come across showing any structural changes or irreversible damage to the tooth structure whatsoever. However, excessive and incorrect use of bleaching gels could on the long run weaken the tooth structure.

    Q:What are the side effects of tooth whitening?

    A:All bleaching gel causes some degree of tooth sensitivity. This is sensitivity to cold/hot fluids and even air can cause discomfort. This is normal and an expected side effect. Some of the brands of bleaching gel contain desensitizing agents which claim to alleviate post bleaching sensitivity. Using a desensitizing toothpaste like Sensodyne or any of the over the counter toothpastes containing potassium nitrate as the active ingredient will help. The sensitivity should subside in a matter of days.

    Q:How long will it take for teeth to become their whitest?

    A:Results vary. Some teeth whiten dramatically in just a few days, while others can take a few months. The majority of people whiten within 2-3 weeks.  The more yellow versus gray color you have in your teeth, the better the bleaching. Grey enamel similar to that of Tetracycline (antibiotic) staining is more difficult to bleach and can take a few months to achieve a result.

    Q: How long the whitening will results last?

    A:Generally, immediately after bleaching, the color will fade slightly and then remain stable for approx. 6 months to a year, sometimes longer. It is recommended for maintenance to touch up your smile every 4-6 months with 1-2 applications

    Q:Will bleaching gel whiten my veneers, caps (crowns) and bonding?

    A:All bleaching agents used to whiten teeth will only work on natural tooth structure. This means that all dental work including but not limited to bonding, veneers, crowns (caps) and bridges will NOT bleach or whiten. All dental work would need to be replaced to match the newly whitened teeth.

Dental Implants

Dental Implants

Dental implants, in simple words, are methods by which we replace missing teeth by providing a permanent fixed solution; that is to actually replace the missing tooth by one that is implanted and fixed in the jaws.This concept goes back to thousands of years. Egyptian mummies have been found with gold wire implants in the jawbones

It is regarded as the most are the most ideal and predictable way to improve your smile and chewing by restoring missing teeth while preserving adjacent teeth and preventing bone loss.Some patients may fear this procedure, but that is because they are not well informed about it and have misconceptions about it. Implant dentistry is a subtle and conservative office procedure performed with precision and finesse. An experienced surgeon can place the implant in 10-15 minutes or less. It is significantly less invasive and less traumatic than conventional bridges that require ‘cutting down’ of natural teeth. Patients often report significantly less discomfort with their implant surgery than even with a simple tooth extraction

Dental implants save you money in the long run by preserving jawbone and keeping adjacent teeth healthy. With proper cleaning and care, an implant will likely last a lifetime. Compared to the alternatives, there is a much lower chance that a dental implant patient will need additional, costly dental procedures after the initial placement. Bridges require unnecessary cutting down of the surrounding teeth, exposing them to possible decay, root canals, or fractures resulting in further extractions and replacement with a costly new longer bridge.Dental implants are made of pure titanium which the body accepts like no other metal. They are therefore proven to be biologically compatible and can safely become part of your smile for a very long time.

Dr Ossama, who's PhD thesis focuses on dental implants, have been dealing with dental implants for over 2 decades now with many satisfied patients. He has extensive experience in dental implants and employs recent advances in the field.

What does getting dental implants involve?

Before any implants are placed, it is important for your dentist to assess the health of your teeth and gums. If there are any signs of gum disease or decay, these must first be treated. Thereafter, your treatment will be planned following several x-rays and, in some cases, a CT scan to assess that bone quality and check for nearby anatomical structures to avoid before any drilling. The procedure is usually carried out under local anaesthesia; IV sedation is sometimes used if it is a long procedure or the patient is very anxious.

The gum where the implant is to be placed is cut and lifted and a small hole is drilled in the jawbone at the precise location of the intended implant. The titanium implant is tightly fitted into this socket and the gum is stitched back over the implant. If there is insufficient bone material to accommodate the implant, a bone graft may be required, or the dentist may use smaller-sized mini implants if suitable.

Once the implant has been placed, it is left to heal and integrate with the jawbone for between six weeks to six months. The bone tissue will grow and anchor itself into the microscopic rough surface of the implant.

During this “healing period”, patients are given temporary teeth (bridges) or continue to wear dentures. It is important that temporary teeth do not exert any force on the healing implant. After the healing period, the gum is again lifted and a post is attached to the implant with a temporary crown. Four to six weeks later, when the surrounding gum tissue has matured, the final permanent restoration can be fitted to the implant

Denture wearing patients could also benefit from implants by either replacing the denture with a fixed prosthesis mounted on dental implants or using as little as two implants to secure the denture in its place as improving the retention of the denture and help in preventing the boneloss that occurs secondary to denture wearing.










Dental Implants FAQs

Q:Are there any age limitations for dental implants?

A:No. Any person at any age can have dental implants as long as there is enough bone available in which to place the implants.

Q:What might be some of the factors that would prevent me from being an implant candidate?

A:There are some medical factors that might prevent a person from being a good candidate for dental implants. Some of these may be uncontrolled diabetes, chemotherapy or radiation therapy, parathyroid disorders, blood disorders, rare bone disorders or bone marrow cancer. Some physical factors may include insufficient or poor quality bone, low sinuses or nerve bundles.


Q:How often will I need to have my dental implants checked?

A:The success of your implants will depend greatly on how well you maintain them. They will need to be professionally cleaned by a hygienist and examined by your implant dentist every three to four months. This hygienist should be trained in the specific procedure of maintaining dental implants. Also, brushing and flossing daily is absolutely necessary for long-term success.


Q:Is dental implant surgery painful?

A:No. An effective local anesthetic is used during the surgery so that you do not have any discomfort during the placement of the implants. The mild discomfort you might experience after surgery can be controlled with medications.


Q:When can I return to work after implant surgery?

A:You can go to work the next day, unless some particular surgical circumstance arises. Your implant dentist will discuss all postoperative instructions with you.


Q:How long will implants last?

A: How long do teeth last? They should last a lifetime. However, we all can sight examples where teeth have not served for a person's lifetime. We know that dental problems mostly stem from improper home care or lack of treatment when needed. The same holds true for implants. With proper care and routine dental check-ups they should last a lifetime. No one can give guarantees because the health of a person is dependent upon many factors which are out of the control of one's dentist, e.g., proper nutritional needs being met, proper hygiene, genetics, disease processes which might occur. So, the answer to this question really is that no one knows how long each individual implant will last... one's success can be influenced by the way you live and the quality of practitioner that you have chosen to do your implants... these things can tip the scales in your favor.


Q: Do implants require special care?

A: Presume that dental implants are natural teeth and treat them that way. Return for regular check-ups. Brush and floss. Realize also, that caring for the gums is the best way to care for one's teeth. More teeth are lost as a result of gum disease than any other single cause.


Q: Is the placement of implants painful? How long does it take?

A: Implant placement usually does not result in much post-operative discomfort -usually the patient takes Tylenol or Advil for about 2-5 days. If more extensive treatment is needed, for example bone grafts or many implants, then the post-operative course may require more time and medication. Anesthesia during the surgery should make the placement procedure pain-free. We are conservative with anesthetic agents and our philosophy is to utilize the least amount of medication for the patient to comfortably tolerate the procedures. Depending on the complexity and number of implants being placed, the procedure can take between 30 minutes to 3-4 hours.


Q: I must have some teeth extracted and I intend to have implants placed to restore my ability to chew. Can a dental implant be placed at the same visit as the teeth are extracted?

A: Whether or not the dental implant can be placed immediately after extraction depends on the amount of available bone in the area and presence or absence of active infection. Placing the implant at the same visit helps preserve both width and height of bone and may prevent the need for placing bone grafts when bone naturally shrinks back after teeth are extracted. During the first year after teeth have been removed, as much as 40% of jawbone width can be lost. Sometimes, infection from a tooth or periodontal disease has destroyed the bone to such an extent that it becomes necessary to do a bone grafting procedure prior to implant placement. If it is possible to place the implant at the same visit as the teeth are extracted, this can save at least three months in healing time compared to waiting for an extraction site to heal before the implants can be placed.

Composite Bonding

Composite Fillings

Composite is a material used to restore decayed or fractured teeth. Composites come in a variety of shades to match the color of your natural teeth and generally exhibit good support and adaptability to the tooth structure. They are placed inside the tooth just like a pack-able filling and a special light is used to make the filling hard. Once the filling is hard using the special light, the patients can chew and function on the tooth. For teeth that have larger filling areas and/or cracks, a material called an Inlay/Onlay may be suggested. Inlay/Onlays are lab made compressed porcelain materials used to fill in the area of the cavity/crack. Inlays/Onlays are very strong and exhibit excellent cosmetic and support characteristics.


Not all composite materials are equal. They vary in characterstics such as strenghts, translucency, and surface roughness. We use internationally renowned brands such as 3M and VOCO.












Composite Fillings could help in:

  1. Restoring decayed or fractured teeth
  2. Closing gaps
  3. Reshaping of ill shaped teeth

Composite Veneers is an alternative to porcelain veneers; It involves placing a layer of tooth colored restoration in a think layer over the facial surface of teeth in order to change; color, alignment or shape. Composite veneers costs less that porcelain veneers but they don't last as long as porcelain veneers and require frequent maintenance.


Root Canal Therapy

Root Canal Therapy


Endodontics is the field of dentistry that deals with the tooth pulp and the tissues surrounding the root of a tooth. The pulp (containing nerves, arterioles and venules as well as lymphatic tissue and fibrous tissue) can become diseased or injured, and is often unable to repair itself; if it dies, endodontic treatment is required.


Root canal therapy got a reputation of being a painful procedure, however, this is a misconception. Skilled and careful dentists are able to numb and treat a "hot" tooth providing the patient with a pain free treatment. Here at GDC we exert the outmost care to provide a pain-free experience to our patients. Oral conscious sedation is also available for anxious patients.



Reasons for root canal therapy:

  • Decay has reached the tooth pulp (the living tissue inside the tooth).
  • Infection or abscess have developed inside the tooth or at the root tip.
  • Injury or trauma to the tooth.
  • Thermal or Chemical irritation to the pulp.


Signs and symptoms for possible root canal therapy:

  • An abscess (or pimple) on the gums.
  • Sensitivity to hot and cold.
  • Severe toothache pain.
  • Sometimes no symptoms are present.
  • Swelling and/or tenderness upon biting.
  • Swelling that spread to the face usually associated with fever and hotness















What does root canal therapy involve?


A root canal procedure requires one or more appointments. While the tooth is numb, an access opening is made on top of the tooth and a series of root canal files are placed into the opening, one at a time, removing the pulp, nerve tissue, and bacteria. If tooth decay is present, it will also be removed with special dental instruments.


Once the tooth is thoroughly cleaned, it will be sealed with either a permanent filling or, if additional appointments are needed, a temporary filling will be placed.


At the next appointment, usually a week later, the roots and the inside cavity of the tooth will be filled and sealed with special dental materials. A filling will be placed to cover the opening on top of the tooth. In addition, all teeth that have root canal treatment should have a crown (cap) placed. This will protect the tooth and prevent it from breaking, and restore it to its full function.


After treatment, your tooth may still be sensitive, but this will subside as the inflammation diminishes and the tooth has healed.


You will be given care instructions after each appointment. Good oral hygiene practices and regular dental visits will aid in the life of your root canal treatment.




Call now and schedule a pain free root canal treatment!


Pediatric Dentistry

Children experiences with dentists are always a delicate matter.

Our experience and knowledge combined with a genuine concern for what works best for kids creates an atmosphere that is both motivational and educational, building trust and a fear free relationship that will help your child grow up with out the fear of dentists which will lead to a long and healthy life of his/her teeth.

Early detection of problems as well as comprehensive prevention program can help your child maintain a healthy smile for a lifetime and help prevent the need for extensive, costly dental treatment.

Your child should have a dental appointment before his or her first birthday, and check-ups should be scheduled about every six months after that to be sure no cavities or other problems develop. During these appointments, we will talk with you about your child's oral health and hygiene, including teething, fluoride, brushing and flossing, cavities, sealants and orthodontics and more such as:

  1. Early detection of caries and closure of pits and fissure that could   promote progression    of caries
  2. Early intervention to prevent the development of misalignments and crowding of teeth
  3. Orthodontic Treatment
  4. Habbit breaking Appliances (to stop thumb sucking or tongue thrusting


Although baby teeth (deciduous or primary teeth) are eventually replaced with permanent teeth, healthy baby teeth are fundamental to a child's overall health and development as their premature loss could significantly affect the permenant teeth and their relationship with the developing jaws.



Oral Health Care Necessities for Children & Infants

 Here's a list of dental care necessities from birth on up:

Baby Teeth Cleaning: Baby teeth should be cleaned as soon as they erupt. Clean your baby's teeth with a soft washcloth or gauze after every bottle or meal. When more than one tooth erupts, you can soak a small-bristled child-sized (age-appropriate) toothbrush in warm water before using it on your baby's teeth, as instructed by your dentist.

Baby teeth should be brushed using a pea-sized amount of toothpaste. Use water without fluoride until approximately six months of age. Encourage your children to brush their own teeth once they have the coordination to do so. Replace toothbrushes every two to three months.

Children's teeth should be brushed after they are given medicine. Acids contained in medicines may eat away at tooth enamel, which serves as a natural protective coating for the teeth. They should also brushed after each meal and before sleeping. Sugars (found in cake, cookies, candy, milk and juice) and starches (found in pretzels and potato chips) can cause tooth decay.

First Dental Visit: It is important that your child see a dentist by age one to establish a long-term dental hygiene and professional dental cleaning plan.

Dental Sealant Application: Dental sealants are used to protect teeth from decay and are appropriate as soon as a tooth erupts. They block out the areas (pits and fissures) where food can get trapped and initiate decay.  You should schedule an appointment with your dentist to evaluate the need of pits and fissure sealants to prevent decay.

Fluoride Treatments: Check with your dentist and water authority about the need for fluoride treatments. Fluoride is a major component in the prevention of childhood dental caries. This is because fluoride alters the molecular structure of the tooth, making it more resistant to acid attack and decay.However, children require the right balance of fluoride treatment. Too much fluoride could be problematic and lead to fluorosis.

Dental Flossing: Parent-assisted dental flossing should commence when two teeth erupt next to each other. Independent flossing should occur when children have the ability to do it on their own (often by six years of age).

Orthodontics: Orthodontics may be appropriate by seven years of age. It is important to consult your dentist at your regular visits as to when orthodontic intervention is needed. The earlier problems are addressed, the easier the treatment will be.























Baby-to-Child Dental Checklist

Some babies are born with neonatal teeth (teeth that develop in the first month) that require dental hygiene or a visit to the dentist for their removal. At least one baby tooth erupts by six months of age. And, yes, it requires cleaning.

From six months to 24 months, children begin teething in earnest, indicated by irritability, biting on objects, drooling and ear pulling. As a parent, you can help teething progress by using strategies such as massaging your child's gums, offering a chilled teething ring or cold, wet washcloth and asking your dentist for a teething ointment recommendation.

By three years of age, most if not all baby teeth have erupted. Soon after four years, spaces for permanent teeth begin to appear as the jaw, supporting bone structure and facial bones begin to grow. Pits and fissures sealants may be needed.

From six to 12, it is typical for your child to have both baby teeth and permanent teeth in their mouth. Orthodontic intervention may be needed. Pits and fissures sealants may be needed.

Keep in mind that these age ranges are estimates only; you should follow your dentist's recommendations.

Periodontics (Gum Care)

Periodontal Diseases and Esthetic Gum Procedures


Periodontal diseases are infections of the gums, which gradually destroy the support of your natural teeth. There are numerous disease entities requiring different treatment approaches. Dental plaque is the primary cause of gum disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Daily brushing and flossing will prevent most periodontal conditions.

Why is oral hygiene so important? Adults over 35 lose more teeth to gum diseases, (periodontal disease) than from cavities. Three out of four adults are affected at some time in their life. The best way to prevent cavities and periodontal disease is by good tooth brushing and flossing techniques, performed daily.

Periodontal disease and decay are both caused by bacterial plaque. Plaque is a colorless film, which sticks to your teeth at the gum line. Plaque constantly forms on your teeth. By thorough daily brushing and flossing you can remove these germs and help prevent periodontal disease.

Periodontal diseases can be accelerated by a number of different factors. However, the bacteria found in dental plaque, a sticky colorless film that constantly forms on your teeth, mainly cause it. If not carefully removed by daily brushing and flossing, plaque hardens into a rough, porous substance known as calculus (or tartar) which require professional cleaning.

Other Causes of Periodontal Disease:

  1. Physical and chemical irritants- Impacted food, smoking, alcohol and the improper use of dental floss or toothpicks may irritate gum tissue.
  2. Abnormal oral conditions or habits- Badly aligned teeth, poorly fitting bridges or partial dentures, defective fillings and harmful habits, such as grinding the teeth and chewing ice, can also cause problems.
  3. Unbalanced diet- Evidence shows a link between nutritional deficiency and the body s ability to fight off infection.
  4. Pregnancy- Due to fluctuations in hormone levels, a temporary condition referred to as pregnancy gingivitis may occur.
  5. Certain medications- Oral contraceptives, anti-epilepsy drugs, steroids and cancer therapy drugs may have a negative effect.
  6. Certain diseases- Diabetes, uremia, liver cirrhosis, anemia and leukemia are among the many diseases that may affect the health of your gums.
  7. Stress

What Are the Signs?

  1. Gums that bleed when you brush or floss your teeth
  2. Red, swollen or tender gums
  3. Gums that have receded or shrunken away from your teeth
  4. Pus between your teeth when you press your gums with your finger
  5. Pain when chewing
  6. Calculus or tartar buildup
  7. Teeth that seem loose or that change position
  8. Changes in your bite
  9. Changes in the way your partial dentures fit
  10. Bad breath or chronic bad taste in your mouth
  11. Teeth that are overly sensitive to hot and cold





Ignoring periodontal problems leads to bone loss around the teeth, teeth mobility, gum recession as you can see the disease progression chart here.




                                      TREATMENT OPTIONS


Non Surgical Treatment:


The first phase of periodontal treatment is scaling and root planning which is the removal of calculus buildup and bacterial colonization in the pocket (space between teeth and gingiva) around teeth. This is called scaling and root planning. This allows the tissues to heal and helps the gingiva reattaches to the teeth and stops the process of bone and soft tissue destruction. Removing calculus build up should be done regularly in your dental cleaning sessions. It's important to have them removed by a dental professional before the periodontal destruction continues.


Make your appointment now to get a professional cleaning session to remove calculus deposits before it's too late!









Surgical treatment for periodontal diseases


1) Flap and Osseous Surgery - In more advanced disease, bacteria and the associated inflammation can lead to changes in the normal shape of the bone around teeth. The normal contour of the bone must be reestablished in order to eliminate the pockets. The gum tissue is gently separated from the bone, making a “flap.” This provides better access to deeper areas of plaque and tartar, and makes it possible to reshape the bone, reducing areas where bacteria can grow. This procedure does not regenerate bone that has previously een lost. The objective of this surgical procedure is to reduce the depth of existing pockets to a level that can be kept clean of bacteria with normal brushing and flossing. In addition, with reduced pocket depth the periodontal maintenance cleanings can be more effective.

2)Guided Tissue Regeneration – This technique uses a “membrane” or barrier to block unwanted tissue from growing into the bone, and allowing bone and ligament fibers to regenerate.

3) Bone Grafts – Bone replacement materials are used to fill in bone defects and serve as a blue print to guide regrowth of your own bone. Grafted bone can be taken from your own mouth, from a synthetic source, or from a tissue bank.



Esthetic Periodontal surgery


A number of periodontal plastic surgical procedures are available to strengthen thin, weak gum tissue as well as enhance the cosmetic appearance of the soft tissues. They serve to help maintain teeth, treat sensitivity, or improve the esthetics of your smile.


1) Ginigval grafts to cover the unsightly gum recession exposing root surface. The graft could be taken from the roof of the mouth or from a synthetic material.

2) Gum re countering involves reshaping of the gum for esthetic reasons such as removal of excess gum tissue. An excessive display of gum tissue when smiling results in the often referred to “gummy smile”. This unsightly appearance can be corrected by altering the level of the gum line with an esthetic crown lengthening procedure. This technique is also utilized to eliminate unsightly uneven gum levels on adjacent teeth.




Orthodontics is the art and science of moving the teeth in the jaws to align them. There are many methods to achieve aligned beautiful and natural looking teeth, whether you are a child, a teen or and an adult. In our dental practice, we have skilled and specialized dentists in the field of orthodontics to provide you with

There is no reason for having unaligned teeth with the presence of all the simple quick and affordable solutions we offer, so make an appointment now and discover the options you have.

In some cases, the combined use of veneer, crowns and bridge in an artistic and functional way by our dental team can align teeth with out using braces at all. This is called “instant orthodontics”

Furthermore, we offer the new revolutionary invisible braces
- the invasilgin". This method is a perfect solution for busy working individuals who don’t want to wear traditional braces. For more information on invaslign, click here.

Many children are ambivalent about getting braces.  On the one hand, they like the idea of perfect teeth, but on the other hand they are nervous about whether the braces will cause pain, discomfort and an unesthetic apperance.  The good news is that the placement of orthodontic braces is not at all painful, and the end result will be a beautiful straight smile. And there are several options to make the braces less visible.

What Causes misalignment of teeth?

Misalignment of teeth could be genetic or due to developmental disturbance such as mouthbreathing, finger sucking, thumb sucking, pacifier sucking, onychophagia  (nail biting), dermatophagia, pen biting, pencil biting, abnormal posture, deglutition disorders,obstruction by tonsils and adenoids, dental disease, or premature loss of primary (baby) teeth.

Here is a brief overview of some of the main types of orthodontic appliances used for children:

  • Fixed braces – Braces comprised of brackets which are place on each tooth and connected together with a wire. These brackets could have a clear color, called ceramic brackets, to improve esthetics.


  • Headgears


  • Retainers – Retainers main function is to prevent the teeth from relapsing into their previous position.


  • Invisible Braces - These are clear plastic trays that are worn for a certain period of time. They are removed only during eating. Because of their clear color, they are almost invisible. For more information of invisalign click here.






Invisalign (Invisible braces)

Invisalign takes a modern approach to straightening teeth, using a custom-made series of aligners created for you and only you. These aligner trays are made of smooth, comfortable and virtually invisible plastic that you simply wear over your teeth. Wearing the aligners will gradually and gently shift your teeth into place, based on the exact movements your dentist or orthodontist plans out for you. There are no metal brackets to attach and no wires to tighten. You simply pop in a new set of aligners approximately every two weeks, until your treatment is complete and you achieve the confident smile that you’ve always wanted. The best part about the whole process is that most people won’t even know you’re straightening your teeth.

What are Invisalign Invisible Braces?

Invisalign is a system of straightening teeth without the use of conventional braces. A series of clear plastic aligners are utilized to create tooth movement. Invisalign uses a series of clear aligners that are custom-molded to fit you. The virtually invisible aligners gradually reposition your teeth into a smile you’ll be proud of. Some advantages of Invisalign braces over regular braces:

  • You can remove your aligners to eat, brush, and floss


  • Your teeth will adjust little by little


  • You have regular progress checks with your dentist/orthodontist


  • You often get great results in just 12 months












The earlier you visit your orthodontist, the easier the treatment will be!
Wisdom teeth

A tooth is described as impacted, if it is blocked from erupting into the mouth fully.  Thus it will lie at an angle instead of being upright, remaining tipped against the tooth in front of it. Technically, any tooth can become impacted but it is wisdom teeth that are the most often affected, owing to their late eruption.  Impacted teeth can cause a range of problems or they can cause no problems.

Do I need to have my wisdom teeth removed and if I do, why? This a very good question as almost everyone will be faced with this question at some point in their life. The decision to have your wisdom teeth removed must be individualized for each patient. Your dentist can help you evaluate the specific conditions of your wisdom teeth and the role they play on your total oral health.


When a wisdom tooth is problematic symptoms may include:

    1. Pain and swelling of the gum overlying the impaction – this is due either infection of this operculum or trauma from the tooth above hitting into it, or a combination of both. For example, a swelling that arises from infection may make the upper tooth impinge onto the gum – traumatizing it more and causing a vicious cycle.
    2. Bad breath, due to infection and/or debris building up in the area.

    3. A bad taste in the mouth, for the same reasons.

    4. Pus coming out from the swollen gum area.

    5. Aches when you open your mouth, as you are stretching the inflamed tissues.

    6. Difficulty on opening your mouth.

    7. Tenderness when chewing or biting as this hurts the swollen gum area.

    8. Pain/ulcers on the inner cheek, where the pointy parts (cusps) of the impacted teeth may be digging into the soft tissues of the cheeks.

    9. Ear-ache, as pain can spread outward from the area.



Complications if problematic wisdom teeth is left untreated?

    1. Infections that may spread and cause facial swellings, fever, headaces, limited mouth opening and pain
    2. Chronic suppurative osteitis. In which there is a chronic infection within the bone that is causing bone resorption. This may lead to increases incidences of jaw fractures and spread of infection and may also in severe cases lead to bone death (necrosis)

    3. Development of cystic lesions that resorb bone and that will need surgical removal and in some cases, it may develop oral tumors.

    4. Damage to the teeth in front of the wisdom tooth as it is erupting in an angle





What to expect?

Before removing a wisdom tooth, your dentist will give you a local anesthetic to numb the area where the tooth will be removed. Conscious Sedation could be used with anxious and fearfull patients. Further,  general anesthesia may be used.Your dentist will probably recommend that you don’t eat or drink after midnight on the night before surgery, so you are prepared or the anesthetic.

To remove the wisdom tooth, your dentist will open up the gum tissue over the tooth and take out any bone that is covering the tooth. Then separate the tissue connecting the tooth to the bone and then remove the tooth. Sometimes the dentist will cut the tooth into smaller pieces to make it easier to remove.

After the tooth is removed, you may need stitches. Some stitches dissolve over time and some have to be removed after a few days. Your dentist will tell you whether your stitches need to be removed. A folded cotton gauze pad placed over the wound will help stop the bleeding.

In most cases, the recovery period lasts only a few days. Take painkillers as prescribed by your dentist or oral surgeon. The following tips will help speed your recovery.

  1. Bite gently on the gauze pad periodically, and change pads as they become soaked with blood. If you still have bleeding 24 hours after your surgery. Call your dentist or oral surgeon
  2. While your mouth is numb, be careful not to bite the inside of your cheek or lip, or your tongue.
  3. Do not lie flat. This may prolong bleeding. Prop up your head with pillows.
  4. Try using an ice pack on the outside of your cheek for the first 24 hours. You can use moist heat-such as a washcloth soaked in warm water and wrung out-for the following 2 or 3 days.
  5. Relax after surgery. Physical activity may increase bleeding.
  6. Eat soft foods, such as gelatin, pudding, or a thin soup. Gradually add solid foods to your diet as healing progresses.
  7. Do not use a straw for the first few days. Sucking on a straw can loosen the blood clotand delay healing.
  8. After the first day, gently rinse your mouth with warm salt water several times a day to reduce swelling and relieve pain.
  9. Do not smoke for at least 24 hours after your surgery. The sucking motion can loosen the clot and delay healing. In addition, smoking decreases the blood supply and can bring germs and contaminants to the surgery area.
  10. Avoid rubbing the area with your tongue or touching it with your fingers.
TMJ Disorders (Joint Pain)

T.M.J stands fro tempromandibular joints, which are the joints that connect the jaws to the head. When the joints malfunction, an imbalance of the jaws occurs which results in facial pain and headaches. These disorders are often referred to as TMJ disorders or TMD

Symptoms of TMD

A variety of symptoms may be linked to TMD. Pain, particularly in the chewing muscles and/or jaw joint, is the most common symptom. Other likely symptoms include:

    1. limited movement or locking of the jaw,
    2. radiating pain in the face, neck or shoulders,

    3. Painful clicking, popping or grating sounds in the jaw joint when opening or closing the mouth. Note though that there is some evidence that jaw clicking leads to serious T.M.J problems. In fact, jaw clicking is fairly common in the general population and may be attributed to a displaced disc- often a harmless condition that does not need treatment. If there are no other symptoms, such as pain or locking, jaw clicking usually does not need treatment.

    4. a sudden, major change in the way the upper and lower teeth fit together.

    5. Symptoms such as headaches, earaches, and dizziness and hearing problems may sometimes be related to TMD.

    6. Chronic, reoccurring headaches

    7. Tired and tight jaws

Causes of TMD:

There are many factors which can cause or contribute to TMJ disorders. They include trauma – any blow to the head or chin, whiplash injury, poor posture, abnormal bite (malocclusion), arthritis and hereditary growth and development factors which contribute to skeletal malformation. Stress at work or home also has an impact on TMJ disorders. Muscle strain and spasm begin when the disc becomes displaced. Early signs of a TMJ disorder usually include clicking or popping noises. More severe displacements can be very painful. If left untreated, permanent change can result.

Diagnosis of TMJ disorders:

Since there are many factors that could cause a TMJ disorder, detailed history and a careful clinical examination, imaging studies of the teeth and jaws may sometimes be helpful as a diagnostic tool. These include: routine dental x-rays and panoramic radiographs, computed tomography (CT or CAT scan), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and scintigraphy (bone scan).

Blood tests are sometimes recommended to rule out possible medical conditions as a cause of the problem.


Treatment for TMJ disorders:

There is a wide range of treatments for TMJ disorders, it is recommend to strat treating TMJ disorders with the most conservative approaches possible. The range of treatments include

  1. Mild TMD symptoms often resolve with simple at home care such as; soft diet avoiding hard and gummy foods. In addition, Avoid putting undue stress on the jaw joint from yawning widely, resting the phone on the jaw area, holding your jaw with your hand while leaning, or slouching at the computer. If you need to be at the computer for long periods of time, set a timer so that you are moving around and are constantly reminded that posture is important and can contribute to TMJ pain issues. When you need to yawn, place a fist under your chin and press up. This can keep your mouth from opening too wide. Try to remember to keep your teeth slightly apart as often as you can. Keep in mind that it is natural for your jaw to open a little if your lips are closed.

  2. Over the counter pain and anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen could be used to control the pain.

  3. Splint therapy

Splints and night guards are plastic mouthpieces that fit over the upper and lower teeth. They prevent the upper and lower teeth from coming together, lessening the effects of clenching or grinding the teeth. A splint/nightguard is meant as a physiologically correct bite that allows the jaw joint (TMJ) to assume it's most correct and least traumatic position. This position will allow for a stable base that will decrease both muscular activity and damaging forces to the joint.

They allow the muscles & ligaments to relax, therefore ridding the facial muscles of the tension and tightness that bruxism, clenching, or other jaw problems may cause.

  • If the patient grinds their teeth (bruxes), splints may protect them from more wear of the teeth, preventing pain, sensitivity, and jagged edges.

  • If a patients bite (occlusion: the way teeth fit together) is off or not right for his or her jaw joints, a splint may adjust the bite into what many dentists feel is a more optimum position, which then allows for the muscles to rest.

























4. Surgical Approach

Surgical approaches should be reserved for the cases that fail to respond to conservative treatments.

I) Arthocentesis

Arthrocentesis is often the first surgical procedure that will be done for a patient who has a displaced disc. It can be done as an in-office procedure, when it involves merely the placement of two hyperdermic needles into the joint, or as an outpatient procedure in the hospital if it is done arthroscopically. In the office, it can be done either under local anesthesia and IV sedation or general anesthesia. In the hospital, it is generally done under general anesthesia as an outpatient.

Once the joint is numbed or you are put to sleep, the needles or the arthroscope are placed into the joint, and it is flushed with a sterile saline solution or a lactated Ringers solution. The purpose of this procedure is to remove tissue breakdown products and reduce inflammation. The surgeon will generally also manipulate the jaw to remove scar tissue adhesions that may have formed .

II) Arthoscopy

TMJ arthroscopy is a procedure that is a little more involved and invasive than an arthrocentesis done with two hypodermic needles. This procedure is almost always done in an outpatient facility in the hospital. An arthroscope is used to look inside your joint to see what is causing your problems. Some surgeons will not only look inside and wash out the joint, but also perform surgical procedures like removing scar tissue, smoothing the bone and even attempt repositioning the disc.

III) Open joint surgery

There are many types of open joint surgeries. In all of them, the surgeon operates on the TMJ without the use of special equipment like video monitors. Instead, an incision is made just in front of the ear and the joint is operated on under direct vision. Your oral surgeon may suggest this type of surgery if:

  • Your problem cannot be corrected with arthroscopy

  • Your TMJ is degenerating

  • You have tumors in or around your TMJ









Bruxism (Teeth grinding)

Bruxism is a condition in which you grind, gnash or clench your teeth. If you have bruxism, you may unconsciously clench your teeth together during the day or grind them at night, which is called sleep bruxism.

Bruxism may be mild and may not even require treatment. However, it can be frequent and severe enough to lead to jaw disorders, headaches, damaged teeth and other problems. Because you may have sleep bruxism and be unaware of it until complications develop, it's important to know the signs and symptoms of bruxism and to seek regular dental care.


Signs and symptoms of bruxism may include:

    1. Teeth grinding or clenching, which may be loud enough to awaken your sleep partner
    2. Teeth that are worn down, flattened, fractured or chipped

    3. Worn tooth enamel, exposing deeper layers of your tooth

    4. Increased tooth sensitivity

    5. Jaw pain or tightness in your jaw muscles

    6. Tired jaw muscles

    7. Earache — because of severe jaw muscle contractions, not a problem with your ear

    8. Headache

    9. Chronic facial pain

    10. Damage from chewing on the inside of your cheek

    11. Indentations on your tongue


If you notice that your child is grinding his or her teeth — or has other signs or symptoms of this condition — be sure to mention it at your child's next dentist appointment.


Causes of bruxism

Possible physical or psychological causes may include:

  1. Anxiety, stress or tension
  2. Suppressed anger or frustration
  3. Aggressive, competitive or hyperactive personality type
  4. Abnormal alignment of upper and lower teeth (malocclusion)
  5. Other sleep problems
  6. Response to pain from an earache or teething (in children)
  7. Complication resulting from a disorder, such as Huntington's disease or Parkinson's disease
  8. An uncommon side effect of some psychiatric medications, including certain antidepressants


Complications of bruxism

  1. Damage to your teeth (including restorations and crowns) or jaw
  2. Tension-type headaches
  3. Facial pain
  4. Temporomandibular disorders — which occur in the temporomandibular joints (TMJs), located just in front of your ears and felt when opening and closing your mouth



Treatments for bruxim


Stress management. If you grind your teeth because of stress, you may be able to prevent the problem with professional counseling or strategies that promote relaxation, such as exercise and meditation. If your child grinds his or her teeth because of tension or fear, it may help your child to talk about his or her fears just before bed or to relax with a warm bath or a favorite book.


Night Guards are thin, transparent, and horseshoe-shaped, dental device that fits over either the upper or the lower teeth, creating a cushion between them and absorbing the impact of the grinding or clenching. Nightguards can help reduce enamel damage, jaw joint inflammation, and irritation to the gums are available over-the-counter and from your dentist. Your dentist can make a custom mouth guard to fit your mouth. A splint/nightguard is meant as a physiologically correct bite that allows the jaw joint (TMJ) to assume it's most correct and least traumatic position. This position will allow for a stable base that will decrease both muscular activity and damaging forces to the joint.


Correcting misaligned teeth may help if your bruxism seems to be associated with dental problems. In severe cases — when tooth wear has led to sensitivity or the inability to chew properly — your dentist may need to use overlays or crowns to entirely reshape the chewing surfaces of your teeth. Reconstructive treatment can be quite extensive and although it will correct the wear, it may not stop the bruxism.


Behavior therapy. Once you discover that you have bruxism, you may be able to change the behavior by practicing proper mouth and jaw position. Concentrate on resting your tongue upward with your teeth apart and your lips closed. This should keep your teeth from grinding and your jaw from clenching. Ask your dentist to show you the best position for your mouth and jaw.


Medications.In general, medications aren't very effective for treatment of bruxism. In some cases, your doctor may suggest taking a muscle relaxant before bedtime. If you develop bruxism as a side effect of an antidepressant medication, your doctor may change your medication or prescribe another medication to counteract your bruxism.


These self-care steps may prevent or help treat bruxism:

  1. Reduce stress. Listening to music, taking a warm bath or exercising can help relax you and may reduce your risk of developing bruxism.
  2. Avoid stimulating substances in the evening. Don't drink coffee or tea after dinner, and avoid alcohol and smoking during the evening as they may worsen bruxism.
  3. Talk to your sleep partner. If you have a sleeping partner, ask him or her to be aware of any grinding or clicking sounds that you might make while sleeping. Your sleep partner can then let you know if he or she notices any teeth-grinding sounds in the night.
  4. Schedule regular dental exams. Dental exams are the best way to screen against bruxism, especially if you live alone or don't


Halitosis (Bad breath)

Causes of bad breath


Poor oral hygiene

The most common cause of bad breath is poor oral hygiene.

Bacteria that build up on a person's teeth, tongue and gums can cause plaque (the soft, white deposit that forms on the teeth's surface), gum disease and tooth decay.

The bacteria combine with saliva to break down food particles and proteins  this releases an unpleasant-smelling gas.

If you don't brush and floss your teeth regularly, any food trapped between your teeth will be broken down by the bacteria, causing bad breath.

Bacteria can also live in the rough surface of your tongue. Therefore, as well as brushing your teeth, cleaning your tongue can also help control bad breath.

Having regular dental check-ups will ensure that any oral hygiene problems are picked up and treated early. Your dentist can advise on how often you need a check-up.

Food and drink

Eating strongly flavoured foods  such as garlic, onions and spices  is likely to make your breath smell. Strong-smelling drinks  such as coffee and alcohol  can also cause bad breath.

Bad breath caused by food and drink is usually temporary, and can be avoided by not eating or drinking these types of food and drink too often. Good dental hygiene will also help.


Smoking is another cause of bad breath. As well as making your breath smell, smoking can also stain your teeth, irritate your gums and lessen your sense of taste. 


Smoking also increases your risk of developing gum disease, which is another cause of bad breath. Stopping smoking will lower your risk of gum disease and thus help prevent bad breath.

Crash dieting

Crash dieting, fasting and low-carbohydrate diets can also cause bad breath. These cause the body to break down fat, which produces chemicals called ketones that can be smelt.


Some types of medication can also cause bad breath. Medications associated with bad breath include:

  1. nitrates  which are sometimes used to treat angina (chest pain caused by a restriction in the blood supply to the heart)
  2. some chemotherapy medication
  3. tranquilisers (phenothiazines)

If the medication you're taking is causing bad breath, your GP may be able to recommend an alternative.

Medical conditions

In rare cases, bad breath can be caused by certain medical conditions.


Dry mouth, also known as xerostomia, affects the flow of saliva. A lack of saliva can cause bacteria to build up in the mouth, leading to bad breath.

Dry mouth can sometimes be caused by salivary gland problems or breathing through your mouth instead of your nose.

In some cases, gastrointestinal conditions may cause bad breath. For example, H. pylori infections (bacterial infections of the stomach lining and small intestine) and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) have been linked with bad breath.

If a gastrointestinal condition is thought to be causing your bad breath, you may need to have an endoscopy. This is a procedure where a piece of equipment called an endoscope is used to examine an area inside the body, such as your airways or abdomen.

Other medical conditions that can cause bad breath include:

  1. lung, throat or nose infections, such as bronchiectasis  
  2. bronchitis
  3. sinusitis
  4. diabetes


Some people are convinced they have bad breath when they don't. This psychological condition is called halitophobia.

People with halitophobia are paranoid about the smell of their breath. They often misinterpret other people's behaviour and comments, thinking they're suggesting they have bad breath. They become fixated with cleaning their teeth, chewing gum and using mouth fresheners.


Treatment for halitophobia involves talking therapies and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), to help the person overcome their paranoia and fixation on the smell of their breath.

Preventive Dentistry

A preventive approach is a the hall mark of maintaining good oral health and a confident beautiful smile.

At our clinic, the doctors give much care to providing the patients with the knowledge of how to prevent the onset, progress, and recurrence of dental diseases and conditions. Prevention includes regular dental exams, cleanings, and x-rays. Sealants and fluoride are also great preventive treatments that help protect the teeth.

Dental Exams

A comprehensive dental exam will be performed by your dentist at your initial dental visit, carefully listening to your concerns and discussing various options. At regular check-up exams, your dentistwill include the following:

    1. Review / discussion of Medical History
    2. Review / discussion of Dental History

    3. Examination of diagnostic x-rays (radiographs): Essential for detection of decay, tumors, cysts, and bone loss.  X-rays also help determine tooth and root positions.

    4. Oral cancer screening: Check the face, neck, lips, tongue, throat, tissues, and gums for any signs of oral cancer.

    5. Gum disease evaluation: Check the gums and bone around the teeth for any signs of periodontal disease.

    6. Examination of tooth decay: All tooth surfaces will be checked for decay with special dental instruments.

    7. Examination of existing restorations: Check current fillings, crowns, etc.

    8. Examination of occlusion (bite) and any implications of malocclusion

Professional Dental Cleaning

Professional dental cleanings (dental prophylaxis) should be scheduled regularly; usually every 6 month. It is an integral part of maintaining good oral hygiene.

  • Removal of calculus (tartar): Calculus is hardened plaque that has been left on the tooth for some time and is now firmly attached to the tooth surface.  Calculus forms above and below the gum line and can only be removed with special dental instruments. Negleting regular removal of calculs leads to bone loss around the teeth and eventually early loss of the teeth. Calculs buildup is often ignored by patients as it is painless most of the time but very damaging to the oral enviroment.

  • Removal of plaque: Plaque is a sticky, almost invisible film that forms on the teeth.  It is a growing colony of living bacteria, food debris, and saliva.  The bacteria produce toxins (poisons) that inflame the gums.  This inflammation is the start of periodontal disease!

  • Teeth Polishing: Removal of superficial stains and plaque that is otherwise not removed by brushing.

Home Care

A beautiful, healthy smile that lasts a lifetime is our ultimate goal when treating patients.    Your personal home care plays an important role in achieving that goal. 

Tooth brushing – Brush your teeth at least twice a day (especially before going to bed at night) with a oft bristle brush and toothpaste.

1. Place the brush at a 45 degree angle to the gums and gently brush using a small, circular motion, ensuring that you always feel the bristles on the gums.

2. Brush the outer, inner, and biting surfaces of each tooth.

3. Use the tip of the brush to clean the inside of the front teeth.

4. Brush your tongue to remove bacteria and freshen your breath.

Electric toothbrushes are also recommended.  They are easy to use and can remove plaque efficiently.  Simply place the bristles of the electric brush on your gums and teeth and allow the brush to do its job, several teeth at a time.

Flossing – Daily flossing is the best way to clean between the teeth and under the gumline.  Flossing not only helps clean these spaces, it disrupts plaque colonies from building up, preventing damage to the gums, teeth, and bone.

1. Take 12-16 inches (30-40cm) of dental floss and wrap it around your middle fingers, leaving about 2 inches (5cm) of floss between the hands.

2. Using your thumbs and forefingers to guide the floss, gently insert the floss between teeth using a sawing motion.

  1. Curve the floss into a “C” shape around each tooth and under the gumline.  Gently move the floss up and down, cleaning the side of each tooth.

  2. Floss holders are recommended if you have difficulty using conventional floss.

Rinsing – It is important to rinse your mouth with water after brushing, and also after meals if you are unable to brush.  If you are using an over-the-counter product for rinsing, it’s a good idea to consult with your dentist or dental hygienist on its appropriateness for you.

Use other dental aids as recommended by your dentist or dental hygienist: Interdental brushes, rubber tip stimulators, tongue cleaners, irrigation devices, fluoride, medicated rinses, etc., can all play a role in good dental home care.













Reasons why proper brushing and flossing are essential:

  • Prevention of tooth decay – Tooth decay is one of the leading causes of tooth loss, and its treatment often requires complex dental procedures.  Tooth decay occurs when the acids found in plaque erode the natural enamel found on the teeth.  This phenomenon can easily be prevented by using proper home hygiene methods.

  • Prevention of periodontal disease – Periodontal disease is a serious, progressive condition which can cause tooth loss, gum recession and jawbone recession.  Periodontal disease is caused by the toxins found in plaque, and can lead to serious health problems in other parts of the body.  Removing plaque and calculus (tartar) from the surface of the tooth using a toothbrush, and from the interdental areas using dental floss, is an excellent way to stave off periodontal problems.

  • Prevention of halitosis – Bad breath or halitosis is usually caused by old food particles on or between the teeth.  These food particles can be removed with regular brushing and flossing; leaving the mouth healthier, and breath smelling fresher.

  • Prevention of staining – Staining or the yellowing of teeth can be caused by a wide variety of factors such as smoking, coffee and tea.  The more regularly these staining agents are removed from the teeth using brushing and flossing techniques, the less likely it is that the stains will become permanent.

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